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Culturas Prehispanicas

Teotihuacan

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On high territories of the center of Mexico two important cities were based towards the 200 a.C., Cucuilco in the south of the valley of Mexico and Teotihuacán in the north. When Cuicuilco was devastated by a volcanic eruption in the first century of ours was, Teotihuacán became the most powerful civilization of the center of Mexico. Its influence extended towards other cultures of all Mesoamérica and to later civilizations, like the one of the Aztecs. Teotihuacán is located in the valley of Teotihuacán, that comprises of the valley of Mexico, 40 km to the northeast of the present city of Mexico. The valley had been occupied by a small population of farmers throughout a millenium before Teotihuacán acquired importance like city. It was located in a strategic region that it gave access to the system of lakes of the inner plain and to other valuable natural resources, like obsidian, volcanic stone, salt and clay to make ceramics. The Earth could be irrigated doing use of the water of different springs. At the beginning of century I of ours it was Teotihuacán had a population of about 20,000 inhabitants. In following the 150 years the population grew extremely, becoming a powerful political, economic and religious center. Its population grew until the 60.000-80.000 inhabitants and their extension from about 8 km2 to about 21 km2. This increase was so fast that it only can be explained like effect of a massive immigration. It seems that all the population of the valley of Mexico was reaccomodated in the city, surely of unavoidable way, or by means of the religious influence or the economic incentives granted by the governors of Teotihuacán. In the following centuries, the population of the city grew of more gradual way. In its apogee, towards year 500, the city was one of greatest of the world, with about 125,000 inhabitants. Teotihuacán had an organized and powerful central government, and a powerful market economy. Its complex society was divided in different classes from craftsmen, farmers, workers and retailers, governed by a powerful aristocracy. In the factories of the city, the artists and craftsmen produced ceramics, figurillas, knives of obsidian and other goods, that were distributed commercially by good part of Mesoamérica. In order to control the traffic of jade, cacao, pens of tropical birds, animal skins and other products of luxury, Teotihuacán maintained colonies as remote as Kaminaljuyú (the present city of Guatemala) and Matacapán (in high territories of Veracruz, to the east of Mexico). Teotihuacán was a religious seat, the center of one elaborated state religion with a professional class of priests. The city was full of murals and religious sculptures, and the laying of their streets even had a religious meaning. In the center of Teotihuacán there was a vast religious monument collection designed to leave overwhelmed the observer. Constructed during centuries I and II, this one area was centered around the Avenue of Deads (or Miccaotli), a great street that formed the main axis the north-south of the city. Throughout the Avenue of Deads, they were the temples known like Pyramid of the Sun (one of the greater structures constructed in pre-Columbian America) and the Pyramid of the Moon, in addition to other 75 temples. The administrative center of Teotihuacán was an adjacent complex of buildings known like the Ciudadela. This ample enclosure measured 400 ms of side and included a temple-pyramid decorated with statues of mitológicas creatures. Like signal of the state power, the rest of about 200 men in the base of this pyramid, soldiers apparently sacrificed have been found ritually. Elite of Teotihuacán lived in a walled district of luxury near the Avenue of Deads. These palaces had murals painted with alive colors in which Gods, animals and mythical figures imagined. For the inferior classes there was a type of standard house as of year 200 of ours was, buildings of apartments of a single floor in which they lived between 60 and 100 people. More than 2,000 of these buildings a patio and one were constructed in Teotihuacán, surrounding or more temples. These constructions surely occupied great familiar groups or people with similar occupations. At the end of the century I SAW, Teotihuacán began to decline. Its population descended until the 70,000 inhabitants and seems to be that there was a government crisis who lasted several decades. Towards the 650 the city underwent a catastrophic collapse. Downtown, in special the temples and monuments of the Avenue of Deads, was burned and sacked in an act of massive destruction. The reasons of the collapse of Teotihuacán escape to us, but between the possible causes they have been shuffled an invasion, the sanitary or hygienic exhaustion of the fertility of the ground or another degradation of the medio.ambiente that caused an irreversible damage to agriculture, problems or even the bad administration. The collapse of Teotihuacán as main political and economic power was made feel anywhere in the world mesoamericano. In central Mexico, the emptiness of being able was filled by a group related to the Mayans, and known like olmecas-xicallanca, that centers fortified for the commerce to long distance founded on Xochicalco, in the valley of Morelos, and Cacaxtla, near Tlaxcala. The fall of Teotihuacán probably contributed to the declivity of Albán Mount and the collapse of another great mesoamericana civilization: the Mayan.

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